The Visual Studio/Visual C++ woes continue. This time, my C++ application gave the message “This application has requested the Runtime to terminate it in an unusual way.” and my application died. This didn't happen on my development machine, but on a different machine on which I ran a Release build.
Googling gave me scary stuff, and that I'd need a hotfix that was not publicly available—you need to contact Microsoft to get it, so I did, and received the hotfix within the hour, but didn't need to install it anymore.
Turned out that the problem was something quite different. My application threw an exception, because a file was not found on the other machine. The error message actually meant to say: “This application threw an unhandled exception.” Thank you, Microsoft.
So, if you ever receive this message, before you look any further: make sure you catch every exception you throw.